"Quantum advantage with noisy shallow circuits"

TYPEQuantum Information Seminar
Speaker:Prof. Robert K├Ânig
Affiliation:Technical University of Munich
Organizer:Netanel Lindner
Date:03.09.2020
Time:14:30 - 15:30
Location https://technion.zoom.us/j/98360333978
Website:https://quantum.technion.ac.il/events?type=59
Abstract:

Prior work has shown that there exists a relation problem which can be solved with certainty by a constant-depth quantum circuit composed of geometrically local gates in two dimensions, but cannot be solved with high probability by any classical constant depth circuit composed of bounded fan-in gates. Here we provide two extensions of this result. Firstly, we show that a separation in computational power persists even when the constant-depth quantum circuit is restricted to geometrically local gates in one dimension. The corresponding quantum algorithm is the simplest we know of which achieves a quantum advantage of this type. It may also be more practical for future implementations. Our second, main result, is that a separation persists even if the shallow quantum circuit is corrupted by noise. We construct a relation problem which can be solved with near certainty using a noisy constant-depth quantum circuit composed of geometrically local gates in three dimensions, provided the noise rate is below a certain constant threshold value. On the other hand, the problem cannot be solved with high probability by a noise-free classical circuit of constant depth. A key component of the proof is a quantum error-correcting code which admits constant-depth logical Clifford gates and single-shot logical state preparation. We show that the surface code meets these criteria. To this end, we provide a protocol for single-shot logical state preparation in the surface code which may be of independent interest.

This is joint work with Sergey Bravyi, David Gosset and Marco Tomamichel, Nature Physics (2020).